Glossary of Terms

Glossary of terms.
Adenosine triphosphate
ATP is the major source of energy for all cellular reactions.
the amount of heat required at a pressure of one atmosphere to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) that is equal to about 4.19 joules. (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system.
Glycemic Index
is a classification of carbohydrates on a scale from 0 to 100 according to the level to which they raise blood sugar levels after eating.
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP.
Immune system
is a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from disease generating substances and pathogenic organisms.
a unit of work or energy equal to the work done by a force of one newton acting through a distance of one meter (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
is an abnormal increase of ketones — acidic substances. Normally the energy for the body is taken from glucose; ketones are produced when there isn't enough glucose in the bloodstream and fats have to be used excessively as fuels. The danger in ketosis is that ketones are acidic, and high levels of ketones raise blood acid concentration. The acidic waste in the blood must be filtered by the kidneys. If blood acid levels rise too high, the kidneys may fail.
the basic structural unit of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA).
Omega-3 fatty acid
a class of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The “3” in their name derives from the fact that the first double valence bond is in the third carbon position from the methyl terminal. These acids are essential to human health but cannot be manufactured by the body; they must be obtained from food.
a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory.
VO2max represents the maximum amount of oxygen you can take in and utilize.